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Root Words and Definitions

Caerlean root words (from Caerlaic, an ancient version of the language):

The Vowels:

Ae - sea

Af - apple

Ao – elf/enchanted

Au - gold

Ea – bridge, pathway

Ee - stone

Ei - hills

Eo – strong(hold)

Eu – light, warmth, ‘sun’

Ia – of the air

Ig – cold

Ir – to smelt, forge

Iw – battle, fight

Oa - water

Oh – gorge, valley

Om - sand

Or - hedge

Ou – beach (coastline, as opposed to Om)

Ua - silver

Uf - chalk

Ui - flint

Ur - tree


Corrupted, derived and other developed roots:

Geographic features:

Góra - mountain

Moor – death, ‘dead land’

Ford – a passage

Knott – literally ‘knot’. Bump, growth

Mersk – marsh

Sol – mud, soil

Feld – field

Lon – land

Weġ ‎- road

Sarn - path

Deepes – lowland

Yppe – upland

Weald/wold – an area of open, uncultivated country, formerly woodlands

Scarp – a steep, high bank, found naturally on chalk hills

Brae - a slope to the sea

Braiden/braid – broad

Hlaew – pronounced ‘halo’. An island surrounded by a small lake

Rudstone – a type of flint with red, waxy-looking veins running throughout

Harthstone – a particularly hard type of stone, similar to granite. Dark grey in colour

Helestone – a type of black, volcanic stone

Kingstone – a type of stone, so named for its majestic appearance – cream in colour and flecked with gold. Traditionally, a standing stone of this material has been used in the coronation of every sovereign of Caerlean since Aewulf the Peaceful, known as the Stone of Session

Moonstone – a type of stone. Almost white in colour and streaked with pale green malachite. Malleable and easy to carve

Îsenstone – a type of stone. Similar in colour and consistency to iron

Butterstone – a type of stone. Yellowish in colour, soft, porous and quite crumbly



Caer – stronghold, fortress, citadel (the name Caerlean derives from Caerlon, or ‘land of the stronghold’)

Tûn – farmstead

Burh – fort

Ham – homestead/peninsula, ‘meadow in the bend of a river’

Bos – a dwelling

Aohamm – ‘elf meadow’



Beck – brook

Rij – river

Mere – lake, pool

Pill - creek

Icene – fish

Win – spray, foam


Elements & weather:

Fȳr – fire

Eor - earth

Drūgaþ - dryness, drought

Megla – fog

Nif – ice, frost 



Dru – oak

Celliwic – ‘the woods’

Kor – root

Omwode – a species of tree that grows in saltwater and around the coast of Caerlean



Blee – colour

Rhudd – red

Śvetá – white

Zelén – green

Blǣw - blue

Gwel - yellow

Deor – black, dark

Mote – light, ‘speck of light’



Fei – love (faithful)

Luba – love (sensual)

Dol - sorrow, tears

Cauma – calm



Ān - one

Twā - two

Threō - three

Fēower - four

Fīf - five

Swéḱs - six

Seofon - seven

Aucht - eight

Newu - nine

Tene – ten

Ānlif – eleven, ‘one left over’ (lif - 'left over')

Twālif – twelve, ‘two left over’

Threōtehun ‎- thirteen, ‘three-teen’ (tehun ‎- teen)

Fēowtehun - fourteen

Fiftehun - fifteen

Swéḱstehun - sixteen

Seofontehun - seventeen

Auchtehun - eighteen

Newutehun - nineteen

Twātene – twenty, ‘two tens’

Threōtene – thirty, ‘three tens’

Fēowertene - forty

Fiftene - fifty

Swéḱstene - sixty

Seofontene - seventy

Auchtene - eighty

Newutene - ninety

Hundac – one hundred


Directions and descriptions of position:

Nert - North

Vesper – West (the Evening Star)

Sun - South

Aust – East

Corn – edge, horn

Heorte – heart, centre

Rowne – secret

Genni – beginning

Ard – height



Dag - day

Naht - night


San – sister

Frae - brother


Lutt - little

Stoor - great, big

Ear - young

Growen – to grow, become green

Kwi – flower, blossom

Bridd – feather

Fenn – of the stars, astral

Harth – hard

Hele – underground

Bær – bare

Eald – old

Wid – knowledge, ‘to know’

Lis - court of a king

Gyva – gift

Îsen – iron

Ang – lion

Wyn – wisdom

Ove – strength

Uin – glory

Cedd – crow

Wulfling – title of a Royal Prince eligible for kingship, dating from the House of Wolves. The name was dropped during the reign of the Sea-Folk, only to be re-adopted by Auwode the Blessed and used inter-changeably with Coille. It has now all but died out with the emerging dominance of Rhudlyon, Beareval and Blaidd (see below)

Halfwulf – name given to Royal bastards, dating from the House of Wolves

Coille – ‘of the forest’. Title of a Royal Prince eligible for kingship, dating from the Forest Kings era. Like Wulfling before it, the name Coille has slowly disappeared from the records as the family were assimilated through marriage into the Rhudlyons

Rhudlyon – ‘red lion’. Title of a Royal Prince eligible for kingship, dating from the House of Lions. Due to the longevity of this House, Rhudlyon remains a common name in royal circles, especially with regards to the seemingly-endless descendants of Angwyn III

Lyon – name given to Royal bastards of the Rhudlyon family

Blaidd – ‘wolf’. Title of one of the ancient families of Chłodny, believed to be distantly related to the Wulfling family. There are currently four male bearers of this name – the Blaidd brothers, who are also cousins to Meška Beareval. Their mother is Isère Beareval, aunt to the current king

Beareval – ‘of the bear’. Title of the current Royal House of Caerlean. This house is still relatively new, with Meška Beareval the only living male carrying the name at present. The family, however, do claim descent from one of the most ancient myths in Caerlean history – that of Bjorri the Mathan-duine, or Bear-Man. He was a skin-shifter from before the time of the First House and could transform at will into the shape of a bear (click here to read Bjorri's full story). A more detailed description of this mythical lineage can be found under the history of the House of Bears

Aelin – ‘belonging to the sea’; derived from ae, meaning ‘sea’, and lin, meaning ‘belonging to’. Title of one of the ancient families of Chłodny, believed to be descended from the Marčovȉkians (the Sea-Folk who ruled Caerlean from 211 to 240)

Aorl – Highest rank of nobility. Created in 244 by Auwode the Blessed to celebrate his marriage to Aulutt (and bestowed by Auwode on his new father-in-law, Carawulf of Ovce)

Aorla - wife of an Aorl, or a noblewoman in her own right

Arthraigh – ‘of the rock’. A worshipper who lives permanently in one of Caerlean’s temples

High Shreve – officer of justice for a county

Chief Shreve – the highest officer of justice in the land, usually appointed by the king. The first of the four great Offices of Power who sit on the King’s Rose Council (for more details on this, see Adair II)

Keeper of the Royal Purse – the official with overall responsibility for the nation’s wealth; he manages the royal treasury and mints. The second Office of Power

Sergeant of the Commons – representative of the common people (the title Sergeant being derived from ‘servant’). Each county of Caerlean sends an elected representative, known as a Commoner, to the Small Council. One of these is then chosen by his peers as Sergeant of the Commons. Sits on the Rose Council as the third Office of Power

Sergeant of the Arthraigh – sits on the Rose Council, representative of the Lady of Alban. The fourth and final Office of Power


Druríchath – The Oak Throne of Caerlean (Druríchatha may be used if the monarch is a queen in her own right, as in the case of Queen Maebh)

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